Failure Mode Effects Analysis

FMEA overview

Failure definition:

A ‘Failure’ is that a component, assembly or system which does not meet the requirements or function in accordance with design intent. (Ex. Not meeting the specification, heat treatment failure)

Failure Mode definition:

A ‘Failure Mode’ is the manner in which a component, assembly or system failure occurs. (Ex. How the component could not meet the specifications, hardness high, hardness low)

FMEA [Failure Mode Effects Analysis]


Failure mode and effects analysis for process

FMEA – failure mode effect analysis is an analysis tools for identification, measurements and necessary actions on identified potential failures that are for particular process functions or requirements of the processes. FMEA is a systematic tools to all the possible failures are identifying, potential effects of failures, mechanical failures, controls, actions that help to prevent the failure in production line in future for any particular process function or requirements of process part.

When FMEA (Failure mode effects analysis) required?

Failure mode effects analysis is creates on base of process maps that is Process flow diagram, mostly prepared:

  • New product development
  • Part production approval process – supporting
  • Changes in existing product or Process

How FMEA works?

Failure mode effects analysis having major parts that counting a risk priority number that help to identify which is very critical part that need to be necessary actions to avoid preventively, Analyst keep single product or process for analysis, find all possible failure modes of the that product or process, what affect can be possible on those criteria had selected, consider occurrence (how many times can be possible to occur), to consider available & required controls and than automatically find the RPN or for failure mode of product or process or part that selected as activities for analysis.

RPN = Severity X Detection x Occurrence

On base of RPN can easier to understand which product / process need to be consider as high risk for priority.

What is FMEA?

FMEA is a systematized group of activities to:

  1. Recognise and evaluate the potential failure of a product / process and its effects
  2. Identify actions which could eliminate or reduce the chance of potential failure occurring
  3. Document the process


  1. For a company policy where continuous improvement is emphasized for its product, process
  2. FMEA is a living document

Who should do FMEA?

  1. Cross Functional Team Effort – with a leader
  2. Team of knowledgeable individuals Ex. Expertise in Mfg., Assly., Quality., etc.
  3. Team should include representatives of sub-contractors and/or customers

When FMEA should be done?

  1. Essence is timeliness
  2. Pro-Active rather than reactive
  3. Before process failure mode occurs

Advantages of FMEA

  1. Avoids late change crisis
  2. Reduces or eliminates chance of implementing corrective change
  3. Excellent technique for preventive action
  4. Interactive process which is never ending

Types of FMEA

  1. System FMEA – Power transmission system
  2. Design FMEA – Axle shaft
  3. Process FMEA – Heat treatment




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